Approaches to the maxilla
Relevant to the required exposure in trauma of the midface two different approaches are possible: the maxillary vestibular approach (illustrated) and the midfacial degloving approach.
Lower eyelid - transcutaneous
There are three basic approaches through the external skin of the lower eyelid to give access to the inferior, lower medial, and lateral aspects of the orbital cavity: subciliary (A), subtarsal (B), and infraorbital (C) approaches.
Lower eyelid - transconjunctival
Transconjunctival lower-eyelid approaches are performed in several ways.
The coronal or bitemporal incision is used to approach the anterior cranial vault, the forehead, and the upper and middle regions of the facial skeleton.
Use of existing lacerations
Facial fractures are often associated with lacerations. These existing soft-tissue injuries can be used to access directly the facial bones for management of the fractures.