Annual Report

Executive Editor: Amy Kapatkin General Editor: Noel Moens

Authors: Bruno Peirone

Femoral shaft 32-B2

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Glossary

Plate and rod
Main indication Skill Equipment
Diaphyseal fractures with non reconstructible fragments Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources


In the presence of non-reducible fragments or when devitalization of the fragments is likely during reduction, indirect reduction and a plate and rod stabilization technique are indicated.

Interlocking nail
Main indication Skill Equipment
Diaphyseal fractures with non reconstructible fragments in young small patients Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

All B and C type fractures, especially the non-reconstructible types, are amenable for internal fixation with an interlocking nail (ILN). The ILN can be used with an open approach but is an excellent minimally invasive device, since it can be placed through small incisions without disturbing the fracture site.



The ILN provides good relative stability to the fractured bone. They are highly effective in counteracting bending forces because of their large diameter and intramedullary location. Unlike intramedullary pins, they effectively counteract axial compression and torsion because of their interlocking mechanisms.

An interlocking nail can be used for all B and C type fractures if the cat's femur is large enough for a small ILN to fit. The techniques for placing an interlocking nail are the same for a cat as the dog.

Bridging plate
Main indication Skill Equipment
Diaphyseal fractures with non reconstructible fragments in young small patients Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources


32-B3, 32-C3 and usually 32-B2 fractures are not reducible fractures; therefore, biological fracture repairs are recommended.

A plate with a bridging function can under certain conditions be used alone for internal fixation of these fractures. If a bone plate is used alone, it must be able to withstand all the weight bearing forces during healing, as the bone will not initially be sharing the load.

A bridging plate used alone is acceptable in light weight, young cats in which bone healing is fast.
For larger patients, stronger fixation such as plate and rod or an interlocking nail should be used. Double plating could be considered as an alternative. (see 32-B3 fractures).

Tie-in technique
Main indication Skill Equipment
Comminuted diaphyseal fractures with non reducible fragments in small patients Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only


An external skeletal fixator with an intramedullary pin tie-in configuration is an alternative to bone plating in small cats.

*Skill
Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills
Some specialized surgical experience Some specialized surgical experience
Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Highly experienced and skilled surgeon
*Equipment
Basic equipment only Basic equipment only
Simple surgical and imaging resources Simple surgical and imaging resources
Full specialized surgical and imaging resources Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

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