Davos Courses

Executive Editor: Amy Kapatkin General Editor: Noel Moens

Authors: Bruno Peirone

Femoral shaft 32-C1

back to skeleton

Glossary

Lag Screw and neutralization plate
Main indication Skill Equipment
Diaphyseal fractures with large reducible fragments Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources


In 32-C1 fractures, the lag screw and neutralization technique may be possible to use. In most cases, C type fractures are best managed with indirect reduction and bridging techniques.

Plate and rod
Main indication Skill Equipment
Diaphyseal fractures with reducible or non reducible fragmensts Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources


In the presence of non-reducible fragments or when devitalization of the fragments is likely during reduction, indirect reduction (bridging fixation) such as a plate and rod stabilization technique is indicated.

Interlocking nail
Main indication Skill Equipment
Diaphyseal fractures with reducible or non reducible fragmensts Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

All B and C type fractures, especially the non-reconstructible types, are amenable for internal fixation with an interlocking nail (ILN). The ILN can be used with an open approach but is an excellent minimally invasive device, since it can be placed through small incisions without disturbing the fracture site.



The ILN provides good relative stability to the fractured bone. They are highly effective in counteracting bending forces because of their large diameter and intramedullary location. Unlike intramedullary pins, they effectively counteract axial compression and torsion because of their interlocking mechanisms.

An interlocking nail can be used for all B and C type fractures if the cat's femur is large enough for a small ILN to fit. The techniques for placing an interlocking nail are the same for a cat as the dog.

Tie-in technique
Main indication Skill Equipment
Diaphyseal fractures with reducible or non reducible fragmensts in small patients Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only


An external skeletal fixator with an intramedullary pin tie-in configuration is an alternative to bone plating in small cats.

*Skill
Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills
Some specialized surgical experience Some specialized surgical experience
Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Highly experienced and skilled surgeon
*Equipment
Basic equipment only Basic equipment only
Simple surgical and imaging resources Simple surgical and imaging resources
Full specialized surgical and imaging resources Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

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