|Lag screw and neutralization plate|
|Simple oblique fracture in large active dogs|
The preferred treatment for 32-A2 fractures is internal fixation with lag screws and/or cerclage wires across the fracture line, combined with a neutralization plate. The screws/wires applied across the fracture generate friction between the fragments and counteract shearing forces, while the plate protects the fixation from collapsing.
|Intramedullary pin fixation with cerclage wires|
|Simple oblique fractures in young patients|
Intramedullary pin fixation with cerclage wires is an option for young or small breed dogs with long oblique or spiral simple fractures in which at least 3 cerclage wires can be applied. The fracture must be completely reconstructible and the bone must share the axial load. It is not recommended for older patients or for those dogs that cannot be adequately confined postoperatively. Failure to choose the correct fracture type and patient for this repair will likely lead to loss of reduction of the fracture.
|Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills|
|Some specialized surgical experience|
|Highly experienced and skilled surgeon|
|Basic equipment only|
|Simple surgical and imaging resources|
|Full specialized surgical and imaging resources|