Executive Editor: Edward Ellis III, Kazuo Shimozato General Editor: Daniel Buchbinder

Authors: Carl-Peter Cornelius, Nils Gellrich, Søren Hillerup, Kenji Kusumoto, Warren Schubert

Midface - Le Fort III - Closed treatment

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Fractures with minor malocclusion which are readily correctable with maxillary disimpaction and manipulation, and not grossly mobile after repositioning may be treated closed.

Patients with malocclusion unable to have general anesthesia can be treated by application of arch bars and elastic traction.

A closed reduction of the midface may be part of an emergency treatment to reduce bleeding and CSF leak. Other options to control bleeding may include nasal packing or placement of a nasal balloon. If these methods fail, an invasive radiologist may be able to assist in the thrombosis of bleeding vessels.

v1.0 2009-12-03