To facilitate intraoperative navigation, fiducial markers on the CT scan have to be included. In a case where the maxilla is not fractured, fiducial markers can be fixed to dental splints. Alternatively, titanium bone screws can be inserted into the skull prior to CT scanning.
Skin fiducials or laser surface scanning in craniofacial trauma are not applicable due to soft tissue changes.
In case shown here, fiducial markers attached to a dental splint were used.