Rapid advances in the use of molecular detection techniques have recently become available to clinical laboratories, using real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and appropriately selected microarrays. This technology can rapidly identify selected bacteria, based on their DNA, as well as any antibiotic resistance. Microbiological culture is not necessary to use these techniques. As examples, it is possible to discover methicillin-resistance of S. aureus within a few hours, as well as to identify fastidious microbes, and those suppressed by antibiotics. Working with microbiologists using PCR, surgeons may well improve adjunctive antibiotic treatment, as well as improve diagnosis and classification of skeletal infections.