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1Principles

A surviving twin with all four limbs supported by splint bandages. The foal obviously looks dysmature.

The basis of nonsurgical management involves either stall rest to reduce excessive uneven loading of the carpal and tarsal region and/or the application of external coaptation to assure axial loading of the skeletally immature cuboidal carpal and tarsal bones and prevent the development of local cartilage destruction and osteochondral fractures. Either splint bandages or tube casts are used for this purpose.