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There are no absolute values for acceptable deformities. Whether a deformity is sufficiently problematic to warrant surgical correction is made on an individual basis and is a function of clinical judgment and the patient's specific circumstances.

The surgical approach is a function of the type, the severity, and rigidity of the deformity. We will focus on kyphosis which is the most prevalent posttraumatic deformity.

The principles involved include release of rigid deformities, correction of alignment, stabilization and reconstruction of areas of bone loss, particularly restoration of anterior column support.

Areas of nerve root compression should also be addressed as needed in the form of corpectomy, laminectomy, or foraminotomy.