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Lateral mass screws vs. pedicle screws C3-C7

Fixation can be achieved with either lateral mass screws, pedicle screws or combination of the two.

Because lateral mass fixation is generally sufficient, and carries less risk, pedicle screw fixation is limited to rare cases where lateral mass fixation would be insufficient or not possible. A pedicle screw is most often used in C7 if instrumented.