The vestibular incision can be used for standard fracture fixation
techniques or in conjunction with endoscopically assisted surgical
The ramus and condyle region can be exposed via an intraoral approach by
extending the standard vestibular incision in a superior direction up the
ascending ramus. The incision can be altered depending on the area of the
ramus/condylar process that needs exposure and treatment.
Oral contamination is not a contraindication for an intraoral incision.
Restricted access and contamination
In complex fractures including comminuted and avulsive fractures that
require the placement of load-bearing reconstruction plates, a
transfacial/extraoral approach can provide better access to treat the