Literature

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 Books and book chapters
 Surgical approaches
 Clinical studies/biomechanics: experimental
 Antibiotics for mandibular fractures
 Diagnosis of mandibular fractures
 Fractures of the condylar process and head
 Angle fractures
 Atrophic mandibular fractures
 Complex mandibular fractures
 Biomechanics, fixation schemes, etc
 Teeth in line of fracture
 Complications
Books and book chapters

Costello BJ, Ruiz RL (2005)  Chapter15: Principios terapéuticos de las fracturas mandibulares. Booth PW, Eppley BL, Schmelzeisen R (eds). Traumatismos maxilofaciales y reconstrucción facial esquelética. España: Elsevier, 261-280. Spanish.

Ellis III E, Zide MF (2006) Section 4: Transoral approaches to the facial skeleton. Ellis III E, Zide MF. Surgical approaches to the facial skeleton. Second edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 109-150.

Ellis III E, Zide MF (2006) Section 5: Transfacial approaches to the mandible. Ellis III E, Zide MF. Surgical approaches to the facial skeleton. Second edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 151-189.

Ellis III E, Zide MF (2006) Section 6: Approaches to the temporomandibular joint. Chapter 12: Preauricular approach. Ellis III E, Zide MF. Surgical approaches to the facial skeleton. Second Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 193-212.

Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG , Macdonald AJ, et al (2007) Diagnostic and surgical imaging anatomy. Brain, head & neck, spine. Salt Lake City: Amirsys.

Härle F, Champy M, Terry BC (1999) Atlas of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis. Miniplates, Microplates and Screws. Stuttgart New York: Thieme.

Lang J (1995) Clinical anatomy of the masticatory apparatus and peripharyngeal space. Stuttgart New York: Thieme.

Lee C, Forrest CR (2006) Chapter 68 Endoscopic facial fracture management: techniques. Mathes SJ, Plastic Surgery. Second Edition. Saunders Elsevier USA, 463-509.

Loukota RA, McCann PJ (2005) Chapter 16 Fracturas del cuello condilar. Booth PW, Eppley BL, Schmelzeisen R (eds). Traumatismos maxilofaciales y reconstrucción facial esquelética. España: Elsevier, 281-97. Spanish.

Manson PN (2006) Chapter 66 Facial Fractures. Mathes SJ. Plastic Surgery. Second Edition. Saunders Elsevier USA, 77-380.

Mueller RV (2006) Chapter 69 Endoscopic mandible fracture management : techniques. Mathes SJ. Plastic Surgery. Second Edition. Saunders Elsevier USA, 511-533.

Schilli W, Stoll P, Bähr W, et al (1998) Mandibular fractures. Prein J (ed). Manual of Internal Fixation in the Cranio-Facial skeleton. Germany: Springer, 57-93.

Ward-Booth P, Schendel SA, Hausamen J-E (1999) Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 1, section 1: Trauma. Churchill: Livingstone.

Yaremchuk MJ, Gruss JS, Manson PN (1992) Rigid fixation of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann 1992.


Surgical approaches

Devlin MF, Hislop WS, Carton ATM (2002) Open reduction and internal fixation of fractured mandibular condyles by a retromandibular approach: surgical morbidity and informed consent. Brit Jour Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 40:23-25.

Manisali M, Amin M, Aghabeigi B, et al (2003) Retromandibular approach to the mandibular condyle: a clinical and cadaveric study. Int J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 32:253-56.

Schön R, Gutwald R, Schramm A, et al (2002) Endoscopy-assisted open treatment of condylar fractures of the mandible:external vs intraoral approach. Int J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 31:237-43.

Toma VS, Mathog RH, Toma RS, et al (2003) Transoral versus extraoral reduction of mandible fractures: A comparison of complication rates and other factors. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surg; 128(2) 215-219.

Vesnaver A, Gorjanc M, Eberlinc A, et al (2005) The preauricular transparotid approach for open reduction and internal fixation of condylar fractures. J Cranio Maxillofac Surg; 33:169-79.

Wagner WF, Neal DC, Alpert B (1979) Morbidity associated with extraoral open reduction of mandibular fractures. J Oral Surg; 37:97-100.

Wilson AW, Ethunandan M, Brennan PA (2005) Transmasseteric antero-parotid approach for open reduction and internal fixation of condylar fractures. Brit Jour Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 43:57-60.


Clinical studies/biomechanics: experimental

Bell RB, Wilson DM (2008) Is the use of arch bars or interdental wire fixation necessary for successful outcomes in the open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures? J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 66(10):2116-22.

Cabrini Gabrielli MA, Real Gabrielli MF, Marcantonio E, et al (2003) Fixation of mandibular fractures with 2.0-mm miniplates: review of 191 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 61(4):430-6.

Champy M, Lodde JP, Jaeger JH, Wilk A (1976) [Mandibular osteosynthesis according to the Michelet technic. I. Biomechanical bases] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac;77(3):569-76. French.

Champy M, Lodde JP, Jaeger JH (1976) [Mandibular osteosynthesis according to the Michelet technic. II. Presentation of new material. Results] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 77(3):577-82. French.

Champy M, Loddé JP, Schmitt R, et al (1978) Mandibular osteosynthesis by miniature screwed plates via a buccal approach. J Maxillofac Surg; 6(1):14-21.

Chien-Tzung C, Jui-Ping L, Tung-Chain T (1999) Endoscopically assisted mandibular Subcondilar fracture repair. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 103; 60-65.

Choi BH, Kim KN, Kim HJ, et al (1999) Evaluation of condylar neck fracture plating techniques. J Cranio Maxillofac Surg; 27:109-12.

Choi J, Oh N, Kim LK (2005) A follow-up study of condyle fracture in children. Int J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com

Ellis E III, Ghali GE (1991) Lag screw fixation of anterior mandibular fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 49(1):13-21; discussion 21-2.

Ellis E III (1997) Lag screw fixation of mandibular fractures. J Craniomaxillofac Trauma; 3(1):16-26.

Ellis E III (1999) Treatment methods for fractures of the mandibular angle. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 28(4):243-52. Review.

Ellis E III, Graham J. (2002) Use of a 2.0-mm locking plate/screw system for mandibular fracture surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 60(6):642-5; discussion 645-6.

Ellis E III, McFadden D, Simon P, et al (2000) Surgical complications with open treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 58:950-58.

Ellis III E, Miles BA (2007) Fractures of the mandible: a technical perspective. Plast Reconstr Surg;120(7 Suppl 2):76S-89S. Review.

Ellis III E, Palmieri C, Throckmorton G (1999) Further displacement of condylar process fractures after closed treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 57:1307-16.

Ellis III E, Simon P, Throckmorton G (2000) Occlusal results after open or closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condylar process. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 56:260-68.

Ellis III E, Throckmorton G (2005) Treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures: Biological considerations. J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 63:115-34.

Gutwald R, Alpert B, Schmelzeisen R (2003) Principle and stability of locking plates. Keio J Med; 52(1):21-4.

Haug RH, Assael LA (2001) Outcomes of open versus closed treatment of mandibular subcondylar fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 59:370-75.

Haug RH, Peterson GP, Goltz M (2002) A biomechanical evaluation of mandibular condyle fracture plating techniques. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 60(1):73-80; discussion 80-1.

Hlawitschka M, Loukota R, Eckett U (2005) Functional and radiological results of open and closed treatment of intracapsular (dicapitular) condylar fractures of the mandible. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 34:597-604.

Hyde N, Manisali M, Aghabeigi B, et al (2002) The role of open reduction and internal fixation in unilateral fractures of the mandibular condyle: a prospective study. Brt J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 40:19-22.

Kroon FH, Mathisson M, Cordey JR, et al (1991) The use of miniplates in mandibular fractures. An in vitro study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 19(5):199-204.

Kushner GM, Alpert B (1997) Management of mandibular body fractures. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am; 5(1):61-76.

Lauer G, Schmelzeisen R (1999) Endoscope-assisted fixation of mandibular condylar process fractures. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; 57:36-39.

Lee C, Forrest CR (2006) Chapter 68 Endoscopic facial fracture Management: Techniques. Mathes SJ, Editor. Plastic Surgery, Vol 3 The head, and neck, part 2. Philadelphia USA: Saunders Elsevier.

Lo J, Cheung LK (2006) Endoscopic-assisted rigid fixation of condylar fracture: A technical note. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; 64:1443-1446.

Madsen MJ, McDaniel CA, Haug RH (2008) A biomechanical evaluation of plating techniques used for reconstructing mandibular symphysis/parasymphysis fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 66(10):2012-9

Marker P, Nielsen A, Bastian HL (2000) Fractures of the mandibular condyle. Part 2. Results of treatment of 348 patients. Br J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 38:422-26.

Meyer C, Serhir L, Boutemi P (2006) Experimental evaluation of three osteosnthesis devices used for stabilizing condylar fractures of the mandible. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 34:173-81.

Mueller RV (2006) Chapter 69: Application in Specific Anatomic Regions: Condylar Neck of the Mandible. Mathes SJ, Editor. Plastic Surgery, Vol 3 The head, and neck, part 2. Philadelphia USA: Saunders Elsevier.

Newman L (1998) A clinical evaluation of the long-term outcome of patients treated for bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyles. Brit J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 36:176-79.

Niederdellmann H, Schilli W, Düker J, (1976) Osteosynthesis of mandibular fractures using lag screws. Int J Oral Surg; 5(3):117-21.

Rudderman RH, Mullen RL (1992) Biomechanics of the facial skeleton. Clin Plast Surg; 19(1):11-29. Review.

Rudderman RH, Mullen RL, Phillips JH (2008) The biophysics of mandibular fractures: an evolution toward understanding. Plast Reconstr Surg; 121(2):596-607. Review.

Santler G, Kärcher H, Rudda C, et al (1999) Fractures of the condylar process: surgical versus nonsurgical treatment. J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 57:392-397.

Schön R, Schramm A, Gellrich NC, et al (2003) Follow-up of condylar fractures of the mandible in 8 patients at 18 months after transoral endoscopic-assisted open treatment. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; 61:49-54.

Smets LMH, Van Damme PA, Stoelinga PJW (2003) Non-surgical treatment of condylar fractures in adults: a retrospective analysis. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg; 31:162-67.

Spiessl B (1975) [Functionally stable osteosynthesis in mandibular fractures--problems and technic] Fortschr Kiefer Gesichtschir; 19:68-72. German.

Stiesch-Scholz M, Scmidt S, Eckardt A (2005) Condylar motion after open and closed treatment of mandibular condylar fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 63:1304-09.

Sugiura T, Yamamoto K, Murakami K, et al (2001) A comparative evaluation of osteosynthesis with lag screws, miniplates, or Kirschner wires for mandibular condylar process fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 59:1161-68.

Talwar RM, Ellis III E, Throckmorton G (1998) Adaptations of the masticatory system after bilateral fractures of the mandibular condylar process. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 56:430-39.

Thorén H, Hallikainen D, Hizuka T, et al (2001) Condylar process fractures in children: A follow-up study of fractures with total dislocation of the condylar from the glenoid fossa. J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 59:768-73.

Throckmorton G, Ellis III E (2000) Recovery of mandibular motion after closed and open treatment of unilateral mandibular condylar process fractures. Int J Maxillofac Surg; 29:421-27.

Throckmorton G, Ellis III E, Hayasaki H (2004) Masticatory motion after surgical or nonsurgical treatment for unilateral fractures of the mandibular condylar process. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 62:127-38.

Throckmorton G, Talwar RM, Ellis III E (1999) Changes in masticatory patterns after bilateral fracture of the mandibular condylar process. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 57:500-08.

Vesnaver A, Gorjanc M, Eberlinc A, et al (2005) The preauricular transparotid approach for open reduction and internal fixation of condylar fractures. J Cranio Maxillofac Surg; 33:169-79.

Villarreal PM, Monje F, Mateo J, et al (2004) Mandibular condyle fractures: Determinants of treatment and outcome. J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 62: 155-63.

Wagner A, Krach W, Schicho K, et al (2002) A 3-dimensional finite-element analysis investigating the biomechanical behavior of the mandible and plate osteosynthesis in cases of fractures of the condylar process. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 94:678-86.


Antibiotics for mandibular fractures

Abubaker AO, Rollert MK (2001) Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in mandibular fractures: A preliminary randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study. Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery; 59(12):1415-9.

Chole RA, Yee J (1987) Antiotic prophylaxis for facial fractures. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 113:1055-1057.

Greenberg RN, James RB, Marier RL, et al (1979) Microbiologic and antibiotic aspects of infections in the oral and maxillofacial region. J Oral Surg; 37:873-84.

Miles B, Potter J, Ellis E (2006) The Efficacy of Post-Operative Antibiotic Regimens in the Open Treatment of Mandibular Fractures: A Prospective Randomized Trial. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 64(4):576-82.

Zallen RD, Curry J (1975) A study of antibiotic usage in compound mandibular fractures. J Oral Surg; 33:431-34


Diagnosis of mandibular fractures

Creasman CN, Markowitz BL, Kawamoto HK Jr, et al (1992) Computed tomography versus standard radiography in the assessment of fractures of the mandible. Annals of Plastic Surgery; 29:109-13.

Chayra GA, Meador LR, Laskin DM (1985) Comparison of panoramic and standard radiographs for the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg: 44:677.

Markowitz BL, Sinow JD, Kawamoto HK Jr, et al (1999) Prospective comparison of axial computed tomography and standard and panoramic radiographs in the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. Annals of Plastic Surgery; 42(2):163-9.

Roth FS, Kokoska MS, Awwad EE et al (2005) The identification of mandible fractures by helical computed tomography and panorex tomography. J Craniofacl Surg; 16:394-9.

Wilson IF, Lokeh A, Benjamin CI, et al (2001) Prospective comparison of panoramic tomography (zonography) and helical computed tomography in the diagnosis and operative management of mandibular fractures. Plast Reconst Surg; 107:1369-75.

Neff A, Mühlberger G, Karoglan M, et al (2004) [Stability of osteosyntheses for condylar head fractures in the clinic and biomechanical simulation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 8(2):63-74. German.

Loukota RA, Eckelt U, De Bont L, et al (2005) Subclassification of fractures of the condylar process of the mandible. Brit Jour of Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 43; 72-73.

Choi BH, Huh JY, Yoo JH (2003) Computed tomographic findings of the fractured mandibular condyle after open reduction. Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 32: 469-73.

Chacon G, Dawson KH, Myall RWT, et al (2003) A comparative study of 2 imaging techniques for the diagnosis of condylar fractures in children. J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 61:668-72.


Fractures of the condylar process and head

Cienfuegos R, Sierra E (2003) Utilización de endoscopía para el tratamiento de fracturas del cóndilo mandibular y la órbita interna. Cirugía Plástica, 13:101-107. Spanish.

Davis BR, Powell JE, Morrison AD (2005) Free-grafting of mandibular condyle fractures: clinical outcomes in 10 consecutive patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com.

De Riu G, Gamba U, Anghinoni M, et al (2001) A comparison of open and closed treatment of condylar fractures: a change in philosophy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 30:384-89.

Eckelt U, Hlawitschka M (1999) Clinical and radiological evaluation following surgical treatment of condylar neck fractures with lag screws. Jour of Cranio-Maxillofac Surg; 27:235-42.

Ellis III E (1998) Complications of mandibular condyle fractures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 27:255-257.

Ellis III E (2000) Condylar Process Fractures of the Mandible. Facial Plast Surg; 16:193-205.

Ellis III E, Throckmorton G (2000) Facial symmetry after closed and open treatment of fractures of the mandibular condylar process. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 58: 719-728.

Ellis E, Throckmorton GS (2005) Treatment of Mandibular Condylar Process Fractures: Biological Considerations. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 63:115-134.

Ellis III E, Throckmorton GS, Palmieri C (2000) Open Treatment of Condylar Process Fractures: Assessment of Adequacy of Repositioning and Maintenance of Stability. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 58:27-34.

Güven O, Keskin A (2001) Remodeling following condylar fractures in children. J Cranio Maxillofac Surg; 29:232-37.

Jacobovicz J, Lee C, Trabulsy PP (1998) Endoscopic repair of mandibular subcondylar fractures. Plast Reconstr Surg;101:437- 41.

Lauer G, Schmelzeisen R (1999) Endoscope-assisted fixation of mandibular condylar process fractures. J Oral maxillofac Surg; 57:36-39.

Lee C, Mueller RV, Lee K, et al (1998) Endoscopic Subcondilar fracture repair: functional, aesthetic, and radiographic outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg;102:1434-43.

Lloyd T, Nightingale C, Edler R (2001) The use of vacuum-formed splints for temporary intermaxillary fixation in the management of unilateral condylar fractures. Brit J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 39:301-03.

Mueller RV, Czerwinski M, Lee C (2006) Condylar Fracture Repair: Use of the Endoscope to Advance Traditional Treatment Philosophy. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America; 14:1-9.

Schon R, Gutwald R, Schramm NC, et al (2002) Endoscopy-assisted open treatment of condylar fractures of the mandible: extraoral vs intraoral approach. Int J of Oral Maxillofac Surg; 31:237-243.

Troulis MJ, Kaban LB (2001) Endoscopic approach to the ramus/condyle unit: Clinical applications J Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 59:503-09.

Tullio A, Sesenna E (2000) Role of surgical reduction of condylar fractures in the management of panfacial fractures. Brit Jour Oral and Maxillofac Surg; 38:472-76.


Angle fractures

Barry CP, Kearns GJ (2007) Superior Border Plating Technique in the Management of Isolated Mandibular Angle Fractures: A Retrospective Study of 50 Consecutive Patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 65:1544-1549.

Ellis III E, Walker L (1994) Treatment of mandibular angle fractures using two non-compression miniplates. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 52:1032-6.

Ellis III E, Walker LR (1996) Treatment of mandibular angle fractures using one non-compression miniplate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 54:864-71.

Ellis III E (1999) Treatment Methods for Fractures of the Mandibular Angle. Intl J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 28:243-252.

Ellis III E (1993) Treatment of mandibular angle fractures using the AO reconstruction plate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 51:250-254.

Choi BH, Kim KN, Kang HS (1995) Clinical and in vitro evaluation of mandibular angle fracture fixation with two-miniplate system. Oral Surg; 79:692-5.

Gear AJ, Apasova E, Schmitz JP, et al (2005) Treatment modalities for mandibular angle fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 63:655.

Iizuka T, Lindqvist C (1993) Rigid internal fixation of fractures in the angular region of the mandible: an analysis of factors contributing to different complications. Plast Reconstr Surg; 91:265-71.

Potter J, Ellis III E (1999) Treatment of mandibular angle fractures with a malleable non-compression miniplate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 57:288-292.

Schierle HP, Schmelzeisen R, Rahn B, et al (1997) One- or two-plate fixation of mandibular angle fractures? J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 25:162-8.

Soriano E, Kankou V, Morand B, et al (2005) Fractures of the mandibular angle: factors predictive of infectious complications. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 106:146-8.


Atrophic mandibular fractures

Ellis III E, Price C (2008) Treatment protocol for fractures of the atrophic mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 66:421-435.

Luhr HG, Reidick T, Merten HA (1996) Results of treatment of fractures of the atrophic edentulous mandible by compression plating. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 54:250–254.

Marciani RD (2001) Invasive management of the fractured atrophic edentulous mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 59:792-795.


Complex mandibular fractures

Ellis E, Muniz O, Anand K (2003) Treatment Considerations for Comminuted Mandibular Fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 61:861-870.

Cillo JE, Ellis E (2007) Treatment of patients with double unilateral fractures of the mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 65:1461-1469.

Pistner H, Michel C, Kubler N, et al (1996) Therapeutic concept in comminuted and defect fractures of the mandible. Fortschr Kiefer Gesichtschir; 41:157.

Smith BR, Johnson JV (1993) Rigid fixation of comminuted mandibular fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 51:1320-1326.

Smith BR, Teenier TJ (1996) Treatment of comminuted mandibular fractures by open reduction and rigid internal fixation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 54:328.

Spiessl B (1989) Comminuted Fractures, Internal Fixation of the Mandible, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 235-240.


Biomechanics, fixation schemes, etc

Cawood JI (1985) Small plate osteosynthesis of mandibular fractures. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 23:77-91.

Champy M, Lodde JP, Schmitt R, et al (1978) Mandibular osteosynthesis by miniature screwed plates via a buccal approach. J Maxillofacial Surg; 6:14-9.

Ellis E (2002) Selection of internal fixation devices for mandibular fractures: How much fixation is enough? Seminars Plastic Surg; 16:229-240.

Ellis E, Graham J (2002) Use of a 2.0 mm Locking Plate/Screw System for Mandibular Surgery. Journal Oral Maxillofac Surg; 60:642-645.

Ellis, E (1998) Lag Screw Fixation of Mandibular Fractures. J Craniomaxillofacial Trauma; 3:27-37.

Gerlach KL, Schwarz A (2002) Bite forces in patients after treatment of mandibular angle fractures with miniplate osteosynthesis according to Champy. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg; 31:345–348.

Haug RH, Fattahi R, Goltz M (2001) A biomechanical evaluation of mandibular angle fracture plating techniques. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 59:1199-1210.

Haug RH, Street C, Goltz M (2002) Does plate adaptation affect stability? A biomechanical comparison of locking and non-locking plates. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 60:1319-1326

Kroon FH, Mathisson M, Cordey JR, et al (1991) The use of miniplates in mandibular fractures. An in vitro study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 19:199-204.

Levy FE, Smith RW, Odland RM, et al (1991) Monocortical miniplate fixation of mandibular fractures. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 117:149-54.

Michelet FX, Deymes J, Dessus B (1973) Osteosynthesis with miniaturized screwed plates in maxillofacial surgery. J Max-Fac Surg; 1:79-84.

Rudderman RH, Mullen RL, Phillips JH (2008) The Biophysics of Mandibular Fractures: An Evolution toward Understanding Plast. Reconstr. Surg; 121:596-607.

Shetty V, McBrearty D, Fourney M, et al (1995) Fracture line stability as a function of the internal fixation system: An in vitro comparison using a mandibular angle fracture model. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 53:791-801.

Tate GS, Ellis E, Throckmorton G (1994) Bite Forces in Patients Treated for Mandibular Angle Fractures: Implications for Fixation Recommendations. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 52:734-736.

Valentino J, Levy FE, Marentette LJ (1994) Intraoral monocortical miniplating of mandible fractures. Archs Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 120:605-12.


Teeth in line of fracture

Anastassov DT. Vuvakis VM (2000) Mandibular fracture complications associated with the third molar lying in the fracture line. Folia Med (Plovdiv); 42:41-6.

Ellis E (2002) Outcomes of patients with teeth in the line of mandibular angle fractures treated with stable internal fixation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 60:863-865.

Gerbino, F. Tarello, M. Fasolis, et al (1997) Rigid fixation with teeth in the line of mandibular fractures. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg; 26:182-861.

Kahnberg KE, Ridell A (1979) Prognosis of teeth involved in the line of mandibular fractures. Int J Oral Surg; 8(3):163-72.

Marker P, Eckerdal A, Smith-Sivertsen C (1994) Incompletely erupted third molars in the line of mandibular fractures. A retrospective analysis of 57 cases. Oral Surg; 78:426-431.

Rubin MM, Koll TJ (1990) Morbidity associated with incompletely erupted third molars in the line of mandibular fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 48:1045-7.

Shetty V, Freymiller E (1989) Teeth in the line of fracture: a review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 47:1303-6.

Thaller SR, Mabourakh S (1994) Teeth located in the line of mandibular fracture. J Craniofac Surg; 5: 16-19.


Complications

Iizuka T, Lindqvist C, Hallikainen D, et al (1991) Infection after rigid internal fixation of mandibular fractures. A clinical and radiological study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 49:585.

Lamphier J, Ziccardi V, Ruvo A (2003) Complications of Mandibular Fractures in an Urban Teaching Center. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 61:745-749.