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Safe zones

Conversion of a temporary external fixator to nailing, or plating
Care should be taken over pin insertion in cases where the external fixator is used as a temporary device and where it is to be converted, either to an intramedullary nail, or to a plate fixation, at a later stage. A common mistake is to insert the pins too close to the future surgical zone. Therefore, in the distal femoral fractures, the pin should be inserted into the proximal one third of the femur and into the midshaft area of the tibia.