Diagnosis

Simple fracture, spiral (AO/OTA 32A1)

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Simple spiral fractures often result from medium to moderate injury to the femur. Spiral fractures of the femoral shaft occur due to axial loading with torsion and may be caused by falls from a height.

Options
1. Proximal 1/3 (AO/OTA 32A1(a)) 
2. Middle 1/3 (AO/OTA 32A1(b)) 
3. Distal 1/3 (AO/OTA 32A1(c)) 

1. Proximal 1/3 (AO/OTA 32A1(a)) 

(AO/OTA 32A1(a))

(AO/OTA 32A1(a))

Simple spiral fractures in the proximal third of the femoral shaft are classified as 32A1(a) fractures.

(AO/OTA 32A1(a))

(AO/OTA 32A1(a))

X-ray taken from Orozco R et al, (1998) Atlas of Internal Fixation. Used with kind permission.

2. Middle 1/3 (AO/OTA 32A1(b)) 

(AO/OTA 32A1(b))

(AO/OTA 32A1(b))

Simple spiral fractures in the middle zone of the femoral shaft are classified as 32A1(b) fractures.

(AO/OTA 32A1(b))

(AO/OTA 32A1(b))

(AO/OTA 32A1b)

(AO/OTA 32A1b)

3. Distal 1/3 (AO/OTA 32A1(c)) 

(AO/OTA 32A1(c))

(AO/OTA 32A1(c))

Simple spiral fractures in the distal third of the femoral shaft are classified as 32A1(c) fractures.

(AO/OTA 32A1(c))

(AO/OTA 32A1(c))

(AO/OTA 32A1(c))

(AO/OTA 32A1(c))