Radius, complete articular (AO/OTA 2R1C1 and 2R1C3)



Complete articular (whole head) fractures of the radial head are divided in two fracture classes:
• 2R1C1 – Simple (left)
• 2R1C3 – Fragmentary (right)

They are either stable fractures with no associated elbow or forearm ligament injury, or unstable fractures associated with elbow dislocation, or part of an Essex-Lopresti (interosseous ligament of the forearm) injury.  If there is a gap between fracture fragments, then there is usually an associated ligament injury or associated fracture.