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MIS lumbotomy in L2-L4

Thoracic and lumbar pathologies: Minimally invasive lumbotomy (L2-L4)

Exposure

There are three abdominal wall muscles. The first layer is the external abdominal oblique muscle, the second layer is the internal abdominal oblique muscle, and the third is the transverse abdominal muscle.

The subcutaneous tissue and the fascia of the obliquus externus muscle are dissected.