AOSR iPad app will be discontinued

Due to its marginal use and high maintenance cost, the AOSR iPad app will be discontinued in August. Instead you may access the AOSR through the iPhone/Android app, or a web browser.

To use the AOSR without the app on your iPad:

  1. Go to
  2. If preferred, you can now choose to use the desktop version on your iPad at the bottom of the screen
  3. If you want an AO Surgey Reference icon on your iPad, just add a link button to your home screen, here is how to do it

Executive Editor: Chris Colton

Authors: Pol Rommens, Peter Trafton

Additional credits

Humeral shaft



Examine upper arm for

  • Swelling
  • Ecchymosis
  • Deformity
  • Open wound
  • Neurologic or vascular deficit (esp. radial nerve)

An adjacent wound implies an open fracture, which needs urgent surgical debridement.


Evidence summary

Decision support

Online AO Resources

Authors' added material

AO Principles

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v1.0 2006-09-14