These are fractures of the proximal fibula, produced by an avulsion (traction) mechanism. The pathology is similar to a rupture of the collateral ligament.
Avulsion of fibular head can indicate several ligamental injuries (besides LCL, the insertion of biceps femoris and the fibula-popliteal lig.may also be avulsed).
Tibial tubercle (AO/OTA 41A1.2)
These are extraarticular fractures of the tibial tubercle, produced by an avulsion (resulting from traction of the patellar ligament) mechanism. This fracture may often be associated with a knee dislocation.
This fracture is classified by the AO/OTA as a 41A1.2 fracture.
Tibial spine (AO/OTA 41A1.3)
Tibial spine (AO/OTA 41A1.3) X-rays taken from Orozco R et al, (1998) Atlas of Internal Fixation. Used with kind permission.
This subgroup describes the avulsion of tibial spine, either anterior or posterior.
This intraarticular avulsion fracture is most often seen in the younger patient.
This fracture is classified by the AO/OTA as a 41A1.3 fracture.