References

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  1. Ark J, Jupiter JB (1993) The rationale for precise management of distal radius fractures. Orthop Clin North Am; 24:205-10.
  2. Robertsson GO, Jonsson GT, Sigurjonsson K (1990) Epidemiology of distal radius fractures in Iceland in 1985. Acta Orthop Scand; 61:457-9.
  3. Kakarlapudi TK, Santini A, Shahane SA, et al (2000) The cost of treatment of distal radial fractures. Injury; 31:229-32.
  4. Fractures of the distal radius. In Skeletal Trauma: Fractures, Dislocations, Ligamentous Injuries. McMurtry RY, Jupiter JB, Browner BD (1997). WB Saunders Co: Philadelphia.
  5. Young BT, Rayan GM (2000) Outcome following nonoperative treatment of displaced distal radius fractures in low-demand patients older than 60 years. J Hand Surg [Am]; 25:19-28.
  6. Krishnan J (2002) Distal radius fractures in adults. Orthopedics; 25:175-9; discussion 179-80.
  7. Bong MR, Egol KA, Leibman M, et al (2006) A comparison of immediate postreduction splinting constructs for controlling initial displacement of fractures of the distal radius: a prospective randomized study of long-arm versus short-arm splinting. J Hand Surg [Am]; 31:766-70.
  8. Earnshaw SA, Aladin A, Surendran S, et al (2002) Closed reduction of colles fractures: comparison of manual manipulation and finger-trap traction: a prospective, randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 84-A:354-8.
  9. Johansson C, Engstrom B, Tornkvist H, et al (1992) [Reposition of Colles' fracture--a new, more rapid, simpler and cheaper method]. Lakartidningen; 89:1662-5.
  10. Chong AK, Tan DM, Ooi BS, et al (2007) Comparison of forearm and conventional Bier's blocks for manipulation and reduction of distal radius fractures. In J Hand Surg [Br], Vol. 32. pp. 57-9. Medline Link.
  11. Azzopardi T, Ehrendorfer S, Coulton T, et al (2005) Unstable extra-articular fractures of the distal radius: a prospective, randomised study of immobilisation in a cast versus supplementary percutaneous pinning. J Bone Joint Surg Br; 87:837-40.
  12. Handoll HH, Madhok R (2003) Surgical interventions for treating distal radial fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev;CD003209.
  13. Kreder HJ, Agel J, McKee MD, et al (2006) A randomized, controlled trial of distal radius fractures with metaphyseal displacement but without joint incongruity: closed reduction and casting versus closed reduction, spanning external fixation, and optional percutaneous K-wires. J Orthop Trauma; 20:115-21.
  14. Cassidy C, Jupiter JB, Cohen M, et al (2003) Norian SRS cement compared with conventional fixation in distal radial fractures. A randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 85-A:2127-37.
  15. Atroshi I, Brogren E, Larsson GU, et al (2006) Wrist-bridging versus non-bridging external fixation for displaced distal radius fractures: a randomized assessor-blind clinical trial of 38 patients followed for 1 year. Acta Orthop; 77:445-53.
  16. Grewal R, Perey B, Wilmink M, et al (2005) A randomized prospective study on the treatment of intra-articular distal radius fractures: open reduction and internal fixation with dorsal plating versus mini open reduction, percutaneous fixation, and external fixation. J Hand Surg [Am]; 30:764-72.
  17. Harley BJ, Scharfenberger A, Beaupre LA, et al (2004) Augmented external fixation versus percutaneous pinning and casting for unstable fractures of the distal radius--a prospective randomized trial. J Hand Surg [Am]; 29:815-24.
  18. Kreder HJ, Hanel DP, Agel J, et al (2005) Indirect reduction and percutaneous fixation versus open reduction and internal fixation for displaced intra-articular fractures of the distal radius: a randomised, controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Br; 87:829-36.
  19. Krishnan J, Wigg AE, Walker RW, et al (2003) Intra-articular fractures of the distal radius: a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing static bridging and dynamic non-bridging external fixation. J Hand Surg [Br]; 28:417-21.
  20. Westphal T, Piatek S, Schubert S, et al (2005) Outcome after surgery of distal radius fractures: no differences between external fixation and ORIF. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 125:507-14.
  21. Leung F, Tu YK, Chew WY, et al (2008) Comparison of external and percutaneous pin fixation with plate fixation for intra-articular distal radial fractures. A randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 90:16-22.
  22. Pieske O, Geleng P, Zaspel J, et al (2008) Titanium alloy pins versus stainless steel pins in external fixation at the wrist: a randomized prospective study. J Trauma; 64:1275-1280.
  23. Handoll HHG, Madhok R, Howe TE (2006) Rehabilitation for distal radius fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev;CD003324.
  24. Lozano-Calderon SA, Souer S, Mudgal C, et al (2008) Wrist mobilization following volar plate fixation of fractures of the distal part of the radius. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 90:1297-1304.
  25. Handoll HH, Madhok R (2002) Managing fractures of the distal radius in adults. Clinical and research implications from systematic reviews of existing trials. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl; 73:45-8.

Further distal radius evidence material
Evidence summary overview
Evidence tables: operative treatments compared to nonoperative treatments
Evidence tables: operative treatments compared
Evidence tables: nonoperative treatments compared
Evidence tables: postoperative rehabilitation methods compared
Methodology used
References for Cochrane review on rehabilitation
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