Executive Editor: Edward Ellis III, Daniel Buchbinder General Editor: Daniel Buchbinder

Authors: Scott Bartlett, Michael Ehrenfeld, Gerson Mast, Adrian Sugar

Congenital deformities

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Coronal approach

Coronal approach

The coronal or bitemporal incision is used to approach the anterior cranial vault, the forehead, and the upper and middle regions of the facial skeleton.

Maxillary vestibular approach

Buccal sulcus approach

The skeleton of the lower midface is commonly exposed using a transoral approach in the maxillary vestibule.

Lower eyelid - transconjunctival

Transconjunctival lower-eyelid approaches are performed in several ways.

Le Fort I level (CLP)

The maxillary vestibular approach is modified to improve the blood supply and to facilitate more radical mobilization.

Transoral approach to chin

The transoral approach to the chin is the usual access for chin osteotomies.

Preauricular approach

Preauricular approach

The preauricular approach can be used to access and treat fractures in the mandibular condylar head and neck region.

Transoral to mandibular angle

The transoral approach is used for the majority of angle, posterior body, and ramus osteotomies.


This approach is selected for access to the angle and ascending ramus in selected cases when a transoral approach is not appropriate.

Lateral mandibular body

The transoral approach to the lateral mandibular body is used for the majority of mandible body osteotomies.

Le Fort I level (orthognathic)

The Le Fort I level is approached through a buccal sulcus approach.

Facelift (rhytidectomy) approach

Facelift (rhytidectomy) approach

The facelift approach provides the same exposure as the retromandibular and preauricular accesses combined. The only difference is that the skin incision is placed in a more cosmetically acceptable location.

Transcutaneous lower-eyelid approach

Lower eyelid - transcutaneous

There are three basic approaches through the external skin of the lower eyelid to give access to the inferior, lower medial, and lateral aspects of the orbital cavity: subciliary (A), subtarsal (B), and infraorbital (C) approaches.

v1.0 2012-07-07