Executive Editor: Amy Kapatkin General Editor: Noel Moens

Authors: Mary Sarah Bergh

Distal Femur

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Glossary

Lateral parapatellar approach to dog distal femur

Lateral parapatellar approach

The lateral parapatellar approach is most commonly used. This approach provides adequate visualization of the articular surface of the femoral condyles and allows access for implant placement in the distal femoral metaphysis and epiphysis.

If longer bone plates are required for fracture fixation, this approach can be combined with the open lateral approach to the femur.

Percutaneous

A percutaneous approach is used prior to pin placement when a minimally invasive approach is preferred, and the fracture can be reduced in a closed fashion.

It is most commonly used with 33-A1 and 33-A2 fractures.

Fluoroscopy or intraoperative radiography is used to ensure appropriate reduction with this approach.

Medial parapatellar approach

The medial parapatellar approach provides adequate visualization of the articular surface of the femoral condyle and allows access for implant placement in this region. It may be preferred for fractures of the medial condyle.

Bilateral approach

The bilateral approach provides adequate visualization of the articular surface of the femoral condyles and allows access for implant placement on both the lateral and medial side. It may be preferred for 33-A3 and 33-C fractures.

Approach for external fixator

A 1 cm incision is performed from proximal to distal through the skin at the desired location of pin placement.

Tibial crest osteotomy

This approach provides excellent visualization of the articular surface of the femoral condyles and allows access for implant placement on the lateral and medial side. It may be necessary for complex 33-C fractures.

1.0 2019-01-15