Dorsal midline approach
The dorsal midline approach is indicated for fractures of the frontal, nasal, and maxillary bones. It provides an excellent view of the fracture area, allows fracture reduction, and placement of implants.
Intraoral approach to the palate
The intraoral approach to the hard palate is done with the dog in dorsal recumbency.
The lateral approach to the zygomatic arch and ventral orbit are indicated for open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic arch and orbital fractures.