Dorsal midline approach
The dorsal midline approach is indicated for fractures of the frontal, nasal, and maxillary bones. It provides an excellent view of the fracture area, allows fracture reduction, and placement of implants.
Intraoral approach - Palate
The intraoral approach to the hard palate is done with the dog in dorsal recumbency.
Lateral approach - Zygoma
The lateral approach to the zygomatic arch and ventral orbit are indicated for open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic arch and orbital fractures.
Intraoral approach - Mandible
The intraoral approach is used for placement of interdental wire with composite, soft tissue debridement, removal of devitalized fracture fragments and closure of oral tissues.
Internal fixation and intraosseous wires should not be placed with intraoral approach.
Rostral ventral approach
The ventral approach to the rostral mandibles may be used for circummandibular wire fixation or for the removal of infected fracture fragments.
Ventral approach to the body
The ventral approach to the mandible is indicated for internal fixation or intraosseous wire fixation.
Caudal ventral approach
The ventral approach to the mandible is indicated for open reduction and internal fixation or of intraosseous wire fixation.
Lateral approach - TMJ
The skin incision follows the ventral border of the zygomatic arch and is angled to cross the TMJ caudally.