Executive Editor: Amy Kapatkin General Editor: Frank Verstraete

Authors: Boaz Arzi


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Dorsal midline approach

The dorsal midline approach is indicated for fractures of the frontal, nasal, and maxillary bones. It provides an excellent view of the fracture area, allows fracture reduction, and placement of implants.

Intraoral approach to the palate

The intraoral approach to the hard palate is done with the dog in dorsal recumbency.

Lateral approach

The lateral approach to the zygomatic arch and ventral orbit are indicated for open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic arch and orbital fractures.

Intraoral approach

The intraoral approach is used to expose and reduce fractures of the caudal or rostral maxilla if they are poorly accessible by an extraoral approach. This approach allows for better visualization of fractures near the dentoalveolar structures.