Executive Editor: Chris Colton

Authors: Peter V Giannoudis, Hans Christoph Pape, Michael Sch├╝tz

Femur shaft

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Antegrade nailing (piriformis)

The entry point in the piriformis fossa is just medial to the tip of the greater trochanter.

Antegrade nailing (trochanteric)

The correct location for the trochanteric entry point is just next to the tip of the greater trochanter in the AP view.

Lateral approach

When open procedures are performed, the incision is made on the lateral aspect of the thigh.

MIO approach

Approaches for minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis are usually performed laterally. They vary according to the fracture location: proximal, mid-shaft, or distal.

Retrograde nailing

Care should be taken with the approach for retrograde nailing as several anatomical structures are at risk.

Locations for pin placement

The safest anatomical zones for pin insertion are the anterolateral and direct lateral regions of the femur.

v1.0 2007-12-02