Executive Editor: Peter Trafton, Michael Baumgaertner

Authors: Peter Kloen, David Ring

Proximal forearm

back to skeleton


Anterior approach

Skin incision

A curved incision over the anterior aspect of the elbow is performed, starting 5 cm above the flexion crease on the lateral side of the biceps.

Curve the incision over the front of the elbow. It ends on the medial border of the brachioradialis.


Surgical dissection

Identify and protect the posterior interosseous branch (PIN) of the radial nerve at the lateral margin of the brachialis muscle. Carefully follow this branch into the supinator muscle.

Split the fascia and ligate the recurrent radial artery.

Further deep dissection exposes the bicipital tuberosity of the radius or the radial neck.


If this approach is used for reattachment of the biceps tendon, release and reflect the supinator carefully, protecting the PIN, display the tuberosity by full supination.


The wound is closed in layers.

v2.0 2018-04-30