Executive Editor: Edward Ellis III, Eduardo Rodriguez General Editor: Daniel Buchbinder

Authors: Nicolas Homsi, Paulo Rodrigues, Gregorio Sanchez Aniceto, Beat Hammer, Scott Bartlett

Corrections of posttraumatic deformities

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Glossary

Cranial vault depressions

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Camouflage Posttraumatic partial thickness cranial vault depressions. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

Frontal bone defects

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Cranioplasty Posttraumatic full thickness frontal bone defects. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
CAS: Cranioplasty Significant posttraumatic frontal bone defects. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

Supraorbital ridge/orbital roof malposition

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Orbitotomy with orbital roof repositioning Posttraumatic supraorbital ridge/orbital roof malposition for the correction of hypoglobus and/or exophthalmos. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources
Contouring Posttraumatic supraorbital ridge/orbital roof malposition for the correction of hypoglobus and/or exophthalmos. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources

Sinus outflow disease

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Endoscopically assisted transnasal drainage Posttraumatic sinus outflow disease. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Sinus obliteration Posttraumatic sinus outflow disease. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources
Cranialization Posttraumatic sinus outflow disease. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources

CSF leak/encephalocele

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Endoscopic transnasal repair Posttraumatic frontobasal CSF leak/encephalocele. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Subcranial CSF leak repair Posttraumatic frontobasal CSF leak/encephalocele. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources
Transcranial CSF leak repair Posttraumatic frontobasal CSF leak/encephalocele. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

Telecanthus

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Reposition of malreduced nasoethmoid skeleton Posttraumatic telecanthus. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

External nasal deformities

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Nasal lengthening Posttraumatic external nasal deformities (shortening). Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources

Orbital wall defects

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Reconstruction of orbital floor/wall defects Posttraumatic orbital wall defects resulting in hypophthalmos and/or enophthalmos. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources
CAS: Reconstruction of orbital wall Posttraumatic orbital wall defects. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Intraorbital volume augmentation Posttraumatic orbital wall defects. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

Zygoma malposition

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Orbitozygomatic osteotomy Posttraumatic zygoma malposition. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources
CAS: Orbitozygomatic osteotomy Posttraumatic zygoma malposition. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Camouflage by augmentation Posttraumatic zygoma malposition. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

Oronasal / Oroantral Fistulae

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Closure with local tissue Posttraumatic oro-nasal/oro-antral fistulae. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Buccal fat pad Posttraumatic oro-nasal/oro-antral fistulae. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Temporalis muscle flap Posttraumatic oro-nasal/oro-antral fistulae. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Tongue flap Posttraumatic oro-nasal/oro-antral fistulae. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources

Alveolar defects in the maxilla

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Non-vascularized bone Posttraumatic alveolar defects. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Buccal fat pad Posttraumatic alveolar defects. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Temporalis muscle flap Posttraumatic alveolar defects. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
FAMM Flap Posttraumatic alveolar defects. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Obturator Posttraumatic alveolar defects. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Radial forearm free flap Posttraumatic alveolar defects. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Fibula osteocutaneous flap Posttraumatic alveolar defects. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

Maxillary malposition/widening

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Le Fort I Posttraumatic maxillary malposition/widening. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources

Malreduction of body, angle, ramus

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Functional therapy Minimal occlusal disturbancies resulting from posttraumatic deformities of body, angle, ramus. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
Minor occlusal adjustments Minimal occlusal disturbances resulting from posttraumatic deformities of body, angle, ramus. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
Revision - Closed treatment Occlusal disturbances resulting from posttraumatic deformities of body, angle, ramus. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
Revision - ORIF Posttraumatic deformities of body, angle, ramus. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only

Malreduction of condyle

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Revision - ORIF Posttraumatic deformities of condyle. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only

Mandibular malunion - Malocclusion

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Functional therapy Posttraumatic minor malocclusion resulting from malunion. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
Minor occlusal adjustments Posttraumatic minor malocclusion resulting from malunion. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
Orthognathic procedures Posttraumatic malocclusion resulting from malunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Osteotomy and internal fixation Posttraumatic malocclusion resulting from malunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources

Mandibular malunion - TMJ Dysfunction

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Osteotomy and internal fixation TMJ dysfunction related to posttraumatic condylar fracture malunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Condylar arthroplasty TMJ internal dysfunction related to posttraumatic condylar fracture malunion. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Gap arthroplasty TMJ internal dysfunction related to posttraumatic condylar fracture malunion. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Condylar replacement - Autogenous TMJ dysfunction related to posttraumatic malunion. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Simple surgical and imaging resources
Total joint replacement - Alloplastic TMJ dysfunction (ankylosis) related to posttraumatic malunion. Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Condylectomy TMJ dysfunction related to posttraumatic malunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources

Mandibular nonunion - Malocclusion

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Functional therapy Minor malocclusion related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
Minor occlusal adjustments Minor malocclusion related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
Debridement and internal fixation Malocclusion related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Orthognathic procedures Malocclusion related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources

Mandibular nonunion - TMJ Dysfunction

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Debridement and internal fixation TMJ dysfunction related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Condylar arthroplasty TMJ dysfunction related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Gap arthroplasty TMJ dysfunction related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Condylar replacement - Autogenous TMJ dysfunction related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Total joint replacement - Alloplastic TMJ dysfunction related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Condylectomy TMJ dysfunction (pain and/or ankylosis) related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources

Mandibular hypomobility/ankylosis

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Physical therapy Hypomobility/ankylosis related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Basic equipment only
Condylar arthroplasty Hypomobility/ankylosis related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Condylectomy Hypomobility/ankylosis related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Gap arthroplasty Hypomobility/ankylosis related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Condylar replacement - Autogenous Hypomobility/ankylosis related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Total joint replacement - Alloplastic Hypomobility/ankylosis related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Arthroplasty and distraction osteogenesis Hypomobility/ankylosis related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

Mandible - Facial asymmetry

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Orthognathic surgery Facial asymmetry related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Distraction osteogenesis Facial asymmetry related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Augmentation procedures Facial asymmetry related to posttraumatic nonunion. Some specialized surgical experience Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

Special considerations

Computer assisted surgery - Orbit
Intraoperative navigation and imaging
Computer assisted surgery - Zygomatico orbital complex
Virtual planning and intraoperative navigation
STL model, virtual planning, and intraoperative navigation
Computer assisted surgery - Craniofacial defect
Virtual planning and implant planning
Computer assisted surgery - Complex central midface
STL model, virtual planning, and intraoperative navigation
Computer assisted surgery - Gunshot injury
Virtual planning and intraoperative navigation
*Skill
Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills
Some specialized surgical experience Some specialized surgical experience
Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Highly experienced and skilled surgeon
*Equipment
Basic equipment only Basic equipment only
Simple surgical and imaging resources Simple surgical and imaging resources
Full specialized surgical and imaging resources Full specialized surgical and imaging resources