AOTrauma Webinar:  Why Do Patients Get Infection?

May 30, 2017 14:00 CET

Main Presenter: Olivier Borens, MD (Switzerland)
Chat Moderator: Stephen Kates, MD (USA)

Surgical site infections after trauma are debilitating and costly. They are feared by the surgeon and the patient alike. The incidence of this complication can be decreased by proper preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management.
The goal of this webinar is to present easy-to-use tools and strategies that will lead to a decrease in the incidence of infection.

More information and registration...

Infection

Executive Editor: Chris Colton

Authors: Matej Kastelec, Renato Fricker, Fiesky Nuñez, Terry Axelrod

Perilunate - Lunotriquetral dissociation

back to Hand overview

Glossary

1 Introduction top

Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

In this more advanced stage of perilunar dislocation, both scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral interosseous ligaments fail.
Midcarpal joint dislocation occurs. The distal carpal row is displaced dorsally regarding the proximal one.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

A rupture of the palmar extrinsic ligaments at the level of the midcarpal joint also occurs.
Combined approaches facilitate comprehensive repair of the multiple ligament disruptions.

2 Reduction top

Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

Closed reduction

Manipulative reduction of the dislocated carpus

Closed reduction is a preliminary step to operative treatment and has three benefits:

  • it restores carpal alignment
  • it improves the patient’s comfort and
  • it facilitates surgical repair.

Closed reduction as an emergency procedure is mandatory in all cases in the emergency room under general or regional anesthesia.
With longitudinal traction on the hand and anterior pressure over the lunate by the operator’s thumb, the hand is gently flexed to reduce the capitate. Once reduction is achieved, the traction on the hand is relaxed.
After emergency reduction, the wrist is immobilized in a plaster splint, or cast (Colles), in a position of about 10 degrees of palmar flexion.
Nonoperative treatment is so frequently followed by redisplacement and later carpal derangement that ligament repair is mandatory.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

Open reduction of the scapholunate joint

At the definitive operation, a joystick K-wire is inserted into each of the scaphoid and the lunate. These are used to reduce the scapholunate joint.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

Assessment of dorsal and proximal ligament parts

In most of the cases, the scapholunate (SL) ligament is avulsed from the scaphoid, and remains attached to the lunate.

The avulsion site is freshened to improve contact and healing.

3 Suture anchors top

Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

A suture anchor is inserted into the debrided area of the avulsion.
The suture anchor must be placed in position slightly obliquely, in order to resist rotational forces between the two bones (the scaphoid should be pulled from flexion, and the lunate from extension).
The anchor is placed distally in the scaphoid, or proximally in the lunate.
Often, one anchor will be sufficient, but occasionally two anchors will be needed.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

The suture is inserted into the ligament proximally when it is anchored in the lunate, and distally when it is anchored in the scaphoid.

4 Anatomical reduction top

Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

The SL gap is closed using the two joysticks, extending the scaphoid and flexing the lunate.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

A pointed reduction clamp helps to secure the reduction temporarily.
Confirm reduction using image intensification. Remove the joysticks if the reduction is satisfactory.
Both bones are secured by transfixation with two K-wires inserted percutaneously from scaphoid to lunate.
Confirm the position of both wires using image intensification.

5 Ligament repair top

Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

At this stage, the sutures are tied.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

If the ligament is torn in the mid-substance, direct repair is undertaken with resorbable sutures.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

Lunotriquetral ligament repair

The lunotriquetral ligament can be torn

  • from the lunate (as in most cases),
  • from the triquetrum,
  • in its mid-substance,
  • or as a bony avulsion from either bone.

There must be sufficient ligamentous tissue remaining attached to the bone for repair with bone anchors. Otherwise, repair must be by direct suture, or by transfixation of both bones.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

The LT joint is reduced, and two 1.4 mm K-wires are inserted percutaneously from the ulnar side of the triquetrum, across the LT joint, into the lunate. Confirm the position of the wires using image intensification.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

A suture anchor is inserted into the debrided area of the avulsion.

6 Palmar approach top

Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

A palmar approach will reveal the characteristic disruptions of the extrinsic palmar ligaments, which occur through the space of Poirier.  A rent in the palmar capsule, between proximal and distal ligament arches, exposes the midcarpal joint.


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

The midcarpal joint is irrigated. Loose bodies, or subchondral flakes, are removed,...


Perilunate – Lunotriquertal dissociation – ORIF – Open reduction internal fixation enlarge

... and the rent is repaired anatomically using interrupted resorbable sutures.

v1.0 2008-11-08