1 Note on illustrations topenlarge
Throughout this treatment option illustrations of generic fracture patterns are shown, as four different types:
A) Unreduced fracture
B) Reduced fracture
C) Fracture reduced and fixed provisionally
D) Fracture fixed definitively
2 Principles of modular external fixation topenlarge
The modular external fixator is optimal for temporary use. It is rapidly applied without need for intraoperative x-rays and can be adjusted later.
Details of external fixation are described in the basic technique for application of modular external fixator.
Specific considerations for the humerus shaft are given below.
3 Pin insertion (humeral shaft) topenlarge
For safe pin placement make use of the safe zones and be familiar with the anatomy of the humerus.
It is useful to draw interoperatively the landmarks of nerves and vessels. The position of the nerves and vessels must be adjusted individually.
Soft tissue dissection
Blunt dissection of the soft tissues and the use of small Langenbeck retractors will prevent damage to muscular, vascular and neurological structures.
Prepare a channel for insertion of the pin, using a straight clamp.