Executive Editor: Peter Trafton

Authors: Kodi Kojima, Steve Velkes

Proximal forearm 21-B3.1 CREF

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Glossary

Author: Dankward Höntzsch

1 Note on illustrations top

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Throughout this treatment option illustrations of generic fracture patterns are shown, as four different types:

A) Unreduced fracture
B) Reduced fracture
C) Fracture reduced and fixed provisionally
D) Fracture fixed definitively

2 Principles of modular external fixation top

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The modular external fixator is optimal for temporary use. It is rapidly applied without need for intraoperative x-rays and can be adjusted later.

Details of external fixation are described in the basic technique for application of modular external fixator.

Specific considerations for the elbow are given below.

3 Pin insertion (humerus/forearm) top

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Pin placement

For safe pin placement make use of the safe zones and be familiar with the anatomy of the humerus and the forearm.


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Soft tissue dissection

Blunt dissection of the soft tissues and the use of small Langenbeck retractors will prevent damage to muscular, vascular and neurological structures.

Prepare a channel for insertion of the pin, using a blunt clamp down to the bone. If there is any doubt an incision should be made big enough to prove that the drill sleeve (for the humerus a must) will have direct contact with the bone.

v1.0 2016-10-24