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Pipsa Ylanko, AOSpine Global Education Manager

Executive Editor: Kenneth Cheung, Larry Lenke General Editor: German Ochoa

Authors: Han Jo Kim, Marinus de Kleuver, Keith Luk

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Lenke 2

back to Spine overview

Glossary

1 Introduction top

AIS Lenke 2 Posterior pedicle screws - Goal of surgery enlarge

The aims of surgery are to:

  • improve the spinal curve
  • improve the three dimensional alignment of the spine
  • prevent progression of the curve in the future
  • improve cosmesis
  • reduce pain
  • optimize pulmonary function
  • maintain neurological integrity

This is achieved by correction of the deformity and creation of a solid arthrodesis of the deformed part of the spine.

To illustrate this procedure, we will use a left PTC and a right thoracic curve.

2 Pedicle screw insertion top

AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Pedicle screw insertion enlarge

Pedicle screw density would depend on surgeon's preference and preoperative planning. Typically less screws are utilized on smaller and more flexible curves, while more screws are utilized on larger and stiffer curves up to a maximum of segmental screws bilaterally.

Details on pedicle screw insertion.

3 Release top

Indications for release

Depending on flexibility findings, the release can be carried out only at the apex of the curve, which is usually the stiffest, or the whole length of the instrumented spine.

A release is generally performed if the spine cannot easily align to the rod during surgery. This can be predicted preoperatively based on the bending X-ray. For stiff curves, fulcrum bending X-ray and the traction X-ray under general anaesthesia is the method of choice for determining flexibility.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Release enlarge

Release

A soft tissue release can be performed by removal of the interspinous ligaments along with the midline ligamentum flavum of the apical regions of the deformity. If additional release is desired, then formal Posterior Column Osteotomy (PCO) can be performed at the same levels. PCO is also called SPO (Smith-Petersen osteotomy) or Ponte osteotomy. The shaded area to the left outlines the bony resection performed during a PCO.

All posterior releases begin by resecting the inferior aspect of the spinous process, followed by removal of the interspinous ligament utilizing a standard rongeur.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Release enlarge

Removal of the 3-5 mm of the inferior aspect of the inferior facet joint is performed at each level of the planned fusion using an osteotome.

The ligamentum flavum is removed with a Kerrison rongeur beginning in the midline and exiting lateral until abutting against the medial aspect of the superior facet. It is important not to penetrate deeply against the dura.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Release enlarge

Care should be taken not to tear the dura particularly on the concavity of the curve where the neuro tissues preferentially lie.

A Kerrison rongeur is utilized to remove the most cephalad portion of the superior articular facet exiting out lateral into the neuroforamen. This completes the PCO and is usually repeated at other levels.

Epidural bleeding within the neuroforamen is controlled with hemostatic agents and cottonoid packing.

4 Facet joint fusion top

AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Facet joint fusion enlarge

In cases where a PCO has been performed, the facet joint is already removed and this step ("Facet joint fusion") should be omitted.

The inferior articular facet is removed with a osteotome exposing the articular cartilage of the superior articular facet.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Facet joint fusion enlarge

Remove the articular cartilage from the superior articular facet using a gouge or a curette.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Facet joint fusion enlarge

Insert pieces of bone graft (autograft, allograft, or bone substitute) into the decorticated facet joint for arthrodesis.

These steps are repeated for all the levels on both sides.

5 Correction of the deformity top

AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Rod bending enlarge

Left rod

The left rod is bent to the appropriate thoracic kyphosis as preoperatively planned with the appropriate transition into mild lordosis at the thoracolumbar junction as necessary.

The amount of thoracic kyphosis bent into the left rod will be based on:

  • curve size
  • curve flexibility
  • number and purchase of bone anchors
  • size and material of the rod utilized

AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Rod insertion enlarge

Starting with the most cranial screw the rod is inserted into the convex side of the proximal thoracic curve (PTC) conforming to the convexity of the PTC without being locked.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Rod rotation enlarge

The rod is rotated 90° degrees, into the appropriate sagittal alignment, engaged, and locked to the 1 or 2 most caudal screws to prevent the rod from rotating back. The other screw heads are unlocked.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Compression enlarge

At this point compression is applied at the cranial three levels along the convexity of the proximal thoracic curve (PTC) correcting the proximal thoracic curve.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Derotation of the spine enlarge

Derotation of the spine

Vertebral screw derotation extenders are applied to the three periapical screw heads on the concavity and convexity.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Apical derotation maneuver enlarge

An apical derotational maneuver is then performed to simultaneously translate the apical vertebrae dorsally and medially to meet the kyphotically contoured concave rod. The screws are then sequentially locked to this rod from the ends to the apex.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Distraction enlarge

Concave distraction

Holding the spine in a derotated position, distraction is performed starting at the apex pushing caudal against the lower screws while pushing cranial against the upper screws. After the distraction is performed. Each set screw is locked down to hold the correction.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Coronal benders enlarge

Coronal benders are applied for fine tuning the correction. Care is taken to prevent bone-screw interface failure by applying an appropriate amount of force.

This maneuver is best performed on either stainless steel or cobalt chrome rods and may not be suitable on titanium rods.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Kyphosis enlarge

Right rod

The right rod is bent to the appropriate thoracic kyphosis with the appropriate transition into the thoraco lumbar junction as necessary.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Rod insertion enlarge

The rod is attached to the most cranial screw, in its normal sagittal plane rotation and locked.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Compression enlarge

Convex compression

After locking the apical screw to the rod, the convex screws are compressed towards the apical anchor to horizontalize each vertebra and then locked in position.

It is recommended to obtain radiographic imaging in both planes to confirm optimal alignment at this point.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Distraction enlarge

Final fine tuning

Compression (1) or distraction (2) is used at the cranial 2-3 levels in order to fine tune shoulder balance, and at the caudal 2-3 levels in order to optimize LIV position.

6 Spinal fusion top

AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Decortication enlarge

Decortication

The laminae and the transverse processes are decorticated with an osteotome.

Care should be taken to always point the osteotome away from the spinal canal.

Alternatively, the decortication may be performed with a powered burr.


AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Fusion enlarge

Bone grafting

Bone graft (allograft, autograft, or bone substitutes) is copiously placed over the entire decorticated area.

7 Transverse rod connectors (if desired) top

AIS Lenke 1 Posterior pedicle screws - Transverse rod connectors enlarge

Transverse connectors are optional in this technique based on overall construct stability.

8 Intraoperative imaging top

At some point prior to wound closure intraoperative imaging should check:

  • Fusion levels
  • Screw position
  • Overall coronal and sagittal correction and alignment

v1.0 2013-12-07