Executive Editor: Luiz Vialle General Editor: German Ochoa (in memoriam)

Authors: Alex Vaccaro, Frank Kandziora, Michael Fehlings, Rajasekaran Shanmughanathan

Thoracic and lumbar trauma

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Glossary

Surgical procedures sorted by fracture type

Use this menu to jump directly into a specific classification (optional):
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 C
A0

Minor, nonstructural fractures

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Nonoperative treatment/ bracing Stable fractures (Type A) Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic equipment only
A1

Wedge-compression fractures

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Nonoperative treatment/ bracing Stable fractures (Type A) Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic equipment only
A2

Split fractures

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Nonoperative treatment/ bracing Stable fractures (Type A) Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic equipment only
Anterior stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
MIS Anterior stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
A3

Incomplete burst fractures

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Nonoperative treatment/ bracing Stable fractures (Type A) Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic equipment only
Anterior stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures without severe anterior column damage Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with intermediate screws All A3, A4, B2 fractures with intact pedicles at the level of fracture Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
MIS Anterior Stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures without severe anterior column damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
A4

Complete burst fractures

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Nonoperative treatment/ bracing Stable fractures (Type A) Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic equipment only
Anterior stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures without severe anterior column damage Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with intermediate screws All A3, A4, B2 fractures with intact pedicles at the level of fracture Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior long segment fixation All unstable injuries Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
MIS Anterior Stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures without severe anterior column damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
B1

Transosseous tension band disruption / Chance fracture

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures without severe anterior column damage Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures without severe anterior column damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
B2

Posterior tension band disruption

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Anterior stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures without severe anterior column damage Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior short segment fixation with intermediate screws All A3, A4, B2 fractures with intact pedicles at the level of fracture Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
Posterior long segment fixation All unstable injuries Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
MIS Anterior Stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures without severe anterior column damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
MIS posterior short segment fixation with Schanz pins All A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 fractures Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
B3

Hyperextension

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Anterior stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
Posterior long segment fixation All unstable injuries Some specialized surgical experience Simple surgical and imaging resources
MIS Anterior Stabilization Neurological damage Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
C

Displacement or dislocation

Please select a treatment option:
Treatment Main indication Skill Equipment
Posterior long segment fixation (C) Type C injuries Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Full specialized surgical and imaging resources
*Skill
Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills Basic surgical experience, no specialized skills
Some specialized surgical experience Some specialized surgical experience
Highly experienced and skilled surgeon Highly experienced and skilled surgeon
*Equipment
Basic equipment only Basic equipment only
Simple surgical and imaging resources Simple surgical and imaging resources
Full specialized surgical and imaging resources Full specialized surgical and imaging resources

v1.0 2014-12-99