Traction applied to the limb helps to realign the proximal fragment as well as the distal. enlarge

Fracture reduction

Since the fracture is not exposed, the surgeon should be skilled at closed reduction maneuvers before considering minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis MIPO.

Traction applied to the limb helps to realign the proximal fragment as well as the distal.


Threaded pins or K-wires may be inserted into the proximal and distal fragment and used as joy sticks for fracture reduction. enlarge

Joy-stick technique
Threaded pins or K-wires may be inserted into the proximal and distal fragments and used as joy sticks for fracture reduction. However, this technique may be less effective in osteoporotic bone.


Use of blunt, curved Hohmann retractors underneath the deltoid muscle can be helpful to expose the humeral head. enlarge

Pearl: use of retractors
Use of blunt, curved Hohmann retractors underneath the deltoid muscle can be helpful to expose the humeral head.


Similarly, a so-called delta retractor may improve deltoid retraction. enlarge

Similarly, a so-called delta retractor may improve deltoid retraction.


The reduction of the humeral head is temporarily secured using 2 to 3 K-wires. enlarge

Preliminary fixation

The reduction of the humeral head is temporarily secured using 2 to 3 K-wires. Make sure to place the K-wires such that they will not interfere with the later plate position.

Confirm reduction
Confirm the reduction by image intensification in two planes.
Attention should  be paid on the correct alignment of the proximal humerus in all planes. Particularly varus malposition has to be corrected. The medial “calcar” region should be well opposed.