Reduction of the humeral head
Reduction of the humeral head may be possible with digital pressure without open exposure. If this is unsuccessful, one could use a periosteal elevator or a bone hook inserted into the glenohumeral joint through a small incision of the rotator cuff.
Prolonged attempts at closed reduction are not encouraged. Proceed with open reduction through an anterior shoulder arthrotomy. For a description of the anterior shoulder arthrotomy see the deltopectoral approach.
One or two threaded pins in the humeral head may be used as “joy-sticks”, to aid the reduction.